In this article, you will learn how to use the Ruby unpack method.
Using the unpack method
The unpack method in Ruby is a powerful tool for decoding binary data. It allows you to convert binary data into a series of Ruby objects, such as integers, strings, and floats.
The unpack method is available on Ruby strings, and takes a single argument, which is a string that specifies the format of the data you want to unpack. The format string can include a variety of codes that specify the type and size of each piece of data in the binary string.
Here’s an example of using the unpack method to convert a binary string into an integer:
binary_data = "\x01\x02\x03\x04" integer_data = binary_data.unpack('N')
In this example, binary_data is a string containing four bytes of binary data. The unpack method is called on this string, with the argument ‘N’, which is a code that specifies that we want to convert the data into a 32-bit unsigned integer. The result of the unpack method is an array containing a single element, which is the integer value of the binary data.
Here are some other codes that can be used in the format string:
- C: 8-bit unsigned integer
- S: 16-bit unsigned integer
- L: 32-bit unsigned integer
- Q: 64-bit unsigned integer
- c: 8-bit signed integer
- s: 16-bit signed integer
- l: 32-bit signed integer
- q: 64-bit signed integer
- f: single-precision float
- d: double-precision float
You can also use these codes in combination with numeric prefixes to specify the size of each piece of data. For example, ‘S4’ would specify a 64-bit unsigned integer.
You can use the unpack method to extract multiple pieces of data from a binary string by including multiple format codes in the format string. For example:
binary_data = "\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06" integer_data, string_data = binary_data.unpack('N A*')
In this example, binary_data is a string containing six bytes of binary data. The unpack method is called with the argument ‘N A*’, which specifies that we want to extract a 32-bit unsigned integer followed by a string of arbitrary length. The A* code tells unpack to read all remaining bytes in the binary data as a string.