Get and Set Data Attributes with JavaScript dataset

Web Design & Web Development

In this article, I will introduce how to get and set custom data attributes (data-*) with JavaScript dataset property.

What is dataset?

To get and set custom data attributes (data-*) on HTML elements, you can use the JavaScript dataset property.

This property is read-only and exposes a map of strings (DOMStringMap) with an entry for each data-* attribute.

It is possible to access custom data attributes (data-*) using the getAttribute and setAttribute properties, but the dataset property is simpler to write and seems to have better performance.

Get custom data attributes (data-*)

Try to get the custom data attributes from the HTML below.

<div id="myid"
  data-user-name="Plantpot" 
  data-country="Japan" 
  data-city="Tokyo" 
  data-lang="ja" 
>
</div>

First, the following code is an example to get all the custom data attributes of the specified element.

const element = document.getElementById('myid');

console.log(element.dataset);
/*
{
  city: "Tokyo"
  country: "Japan"
  lang: "ja"
  userName: "Plantpot"
}
*/

Second, the following code is an example to get an individual data attribute of the specified element.

const element = document.getElementById('myid');
console.log(element.dataset.userName); // Plantpot
console.log(element.dataset.country); // Japan
console.log(element.dataset.city); // Tokyo
console.log(element.dataset.lang); // ja
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Set custom data attributes (data-*)

The following code is an example to create a new custom data attribute on the specified element.

const element = document.getElementById('myid');

element.dataset.myData = "foo bar";
console.log(element.dataset.myData); // foo bar

The HTML will be updated like this.

<div id="myid"
  data-user-name="Plantpot" 
  data-country="Japan" 
  data-city="Tokyo" 
  data-lang="ja" 
  data-my-data="foo bar" 
>
</div>
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Update custom data attributes (data-*)

The following code is an example to update the custom data attributes on the specified element.

const element = document.getElementById('myid');

element.dataset.userName = "test";
console.log(element.dataset.userName); // test

element.dataset.country = "United States";
console.log(element.dataset.country); // United States

element.dataset.city = "New York";
console.log(element.dataset.city); // New York

element.dataset.lang = "en-us";
console.log(element.dataset.lang); // en-us

The HTML will be updated like this.

<div id="myid"
  data-user-name="test" 
  data-country="United States" 
  data-city="New York" 
  data-lang="en-us" 
>
</div>
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Delete custom data attributes (data-*)

The following code is an example to delete the custom data attributes from the specified element.

const element = document.getElementById('myid');

delete element.dataset.userName;
console.log(element.dataset.userName) // undefined

The HTML will be updated like this.

<div id="myid"
  data-country="Japan" 
  data-city="Tokyo" 
  data-lang="ja" 
>
</div>